Previous research in blackjack has demonstrated that gamblers report outcomes that are closer to wins when the player's total approximates the dealer's total. However, additional comparisons, such as to another player's total or to 21, may affect the prevalence of a near-miss. The current study investigated the presence of a near-miss in blackjack while playing alone and with other players, and examined ratings in relation to the difference of the player's, dealer´s and another player´s total from 21. College students played 25 hands of blackjack with only the dealer and another 25 hands with another player and the dealer and rated how close the outcome was to a win. The results demonstrated the presence of a near-miss effect as a function of the numerical distance from the player's and another player´s total to 21, and the absence of a near-miss when the player busts.
Gunnarsson, Karl F.; Whiting, Seth W.; and Dixon, Mark R.
"The Near-Miss Effect in Blackjack: Group Play and Lone Play,"
Analysis of Gambling Behavior: Vol. 8
, Article 4.
Available at: https://repository.stcloudstate.edu/agb/vol8/iss2/4