The Repository @ St. Cloud State

Open Access Knowledge and Scholarship

Date of Award


Culminating Project Type


Degree Name

Child and Family Studies: Family Studies: M.S.


Child and Family Studies


School of Education

First Advisor

Jane Minnema

Second Advisor

Ming-Chi Own

Third Advisor

Nicholas Miller

Fourth Advisor

Karen Ihnen

Creative Commons License

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 4.0 License.

Keywords and Subject Headings

Pre-k, preschool, literacy interventions, teacher created literacy interventions, Tier 2, Tier 3, full day preschool


Achievement gaps in literacy start as early as pre-k. For this research study, an interview of 6 full-day pre-k teachers in a public school in Minnesota was conducted. One way to help close achievement gaps is for teachers to implement literacy interventions in the pre-k classroom. Instruction can have three different tiers. Tier 1 instruction is what a teacher teach to all students. Tier 2 instruction is when a teacher teaches a small group. Tier 3 instruction is when a teacher teaches with a pair of students or with individual students. The purpose of this research was to find out if teachers are familiar with published literacy interventions, and if teachers are comfortable using their own teacher-created literacy interventions to meet the immediate needs of pre-k students.