The Repository @ St. Cloud State

Open Access Knowledge and Scholarship

Date of Award


Culminating Project Type

Starred Paper



Degree Name

Early Childhood Special Education Studies: M.S.


Child and Family Studies


School of Education

First Advisor

Frances Kayona

Second Advisor

Deborah Wheeler

Third Advisor

Ana Welu

Creative Commons License

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 4.0 License.

Keywords and Subject Headings

Early Intervention, Parental Well-Being, Young Children with Disabilities, Family Outcomes


It is widely accepted that parents of children with special needs experience decreased psychological well-being when compared to parents of typically developing children. However, there is significant individual variation in the outcomes of parents of children with disabilities. The pathways between well-being and having a child with disabilities are not conclusive. Parental attitude, competence, social support, child factors, and family factors were amongst the most common protective/risk factors identified in the literature. Early Interventionists should consider addressing any deficits in these five areas to support caregiver well-being and boost child outcomes.