Culminating Project Title
Date of Award
Culminating Project Type
Applied Behavior Analysis: M.S.
Community Psychology, Counseling and Family Therapy
School of Health and Human Services
Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 4.0 License.
Keywords and Subject Headings
littering, cigarette, low-cost, prompts, feedback, receptacles
The current study examines the effects of low-cost interventions such as prompts, feedback, and the addition of receptacles on littering behavior of cigarette butts in the natural environment. Two receptacles were placed at each experimental hole, one within twenty feet of the tee box, and a second within twenty feet of the edge of the green. Prompts included (1) a reminder of the location of receptacles, (2) a slogan prompting proper disposal of cigarette butts, and (3) one piece of information regarding consequences of cigarette butt litter. Feedback included a barometer specific to each hole indicating the decrease in cigarette butt litter on each individual experimental hole since baseline. An additive component analysis was used to determine effectiveness of each low-cost intervention. Results from this study expands the literature on cost-effective, low effort, and socially valid interventions tackling litter. In the current study, simply providing receptacles for proper cigarette disposal was deemed the more effective and preferred intervention to decrease cigarette butt litter.
Turner, Julia, "A Component Analysis of Low-Cost Interventions to Decrease Cigarette Butt Litter in the Natural Environment" (2018). Culminating Projects in Community Psychology, Counseling and Family Therapy. 55.