Date of Award


Culminating Project Type


Degree Name

Applied Behavior Analysis: M.S.


Community Psychology, Counseling and Family Therapy


School of Health and Human Services

First Advisor

Michele Traub

Second Advisor

Benjamin Witts

Third Advisor

Kimberly Schulze

Creative Commons License

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 4.0 License.

Keywords and Subject Headings

littering, cigarette, low-cost, prompts, feedback, receptacles


The current study examines the effects of low-cost interventions such as prompts, feedback, and the addition of receptacles on littering behavior of cigarette butts in the natural environment. Two receptacles were placed at each experimental hole, one within twenty feet of the tee box, and a second within twenty feet of the edge of the green. Prompts included (1) a reminder of the location of receptacles, (2) a slogan prompting proper disposal of cigarette butts, and (3) one piece of information regarding consequences of cigarette butt litter. Feedback included a barometer specific to each hole indicating the decrease in cigarette butt litter on each individual experimental hole since baseline. An additive component analysis was used to determine effectiveness of each low-cost intervention. Results from this study expands the literature on cost-effective, low effort, and socially valid interventions tackling litter. In the current study, simply providing receptacles for proper cigarette disposal was deemed the more effective and preferred intervention to decrease cigarette butt litter.


I would like to thank the staff and management at Beauty Bay Golf Course for their cooperation, positive and meaningful feedback, and their warm welcome throughout my research.

I would also like to express my profound gratitude to my fiancé, Bryce Evason for his unwavering love, support, and encouragement no matter what I do.

Finally I would like to thank my parents, Craig and Teresa Turner, whose love and guidance are with me always. Thank you for always encouraging me to pursue my goals, and especially for all the cold, early mornings spent counting cigarette butt waste with me. This accomplishment truly would not have been possible without you. Thank you.



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