The Repository @ St. Cloud State

Open Access Knowledge and Scholarship

Date of Award


Culminating Project Type


Degree Name

Applied Behavior Analysis: M.S.


Community Psychology, Counseling and Family Therapy


School of Health and Human Services

First Advisor

Benjamin N. Witts

Second Advisor

Odessa Luna

Third Advisor

Kimberly Schulze

Creative Commons License

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 4.0 License.

Keywords and Subject Headings

Publication Bias, Performance Diagnostic Checklist, Performance Diagnostic Checklist-Safety, Performance Diagnostic Checklist-Human Services


Publication bias—selectively publishing studies with positive outcomes—poses a problem to science as it can lead to inaccurate reports of intervention effects. Sham and Smith (2014) found that the published and unpublished pivotal response treatment literature differed, calling for more investigation into behavior-analytic research for publication bias. In this study, comparisons between the published and unpublished literature on the Performance Diagnostic Checklist, Performance Diagnostic Checklist-Human Services, and the Performance Diagnostic Checklist-Safety were conducted across three effect size measures: percentage of non-overlapping data, improvement rate difference, and percentage of data exceeding the median. Generally published literature outperformed the unpublished literature, providing further evidence of an overselling of results in the field.



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