The Repository @ St. Cloud State

Open Access Knowledge and Scholarship

Date of Award


Culminating Project Type


Degree Name

Applied Behavior Analysis: M.S.


Community Psychology, Counseling and Family Therapy


School of Health and Human Services

First Advisor

Dr. Kimberly Schulze

Second Advisor

Odessa Luna

Third Advisor

Michele Traub

Fourth Advisor

Benjamin Witts

Creative Commons License

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 4.0 License.

Keywords and Subject Headings

autism spectrum disorders, discrete trial teaching, counterbalancing, receptive labe


Research shows that individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) can make significant gains with the use of early intensive behavioral intervention (EIBI). Discrete trial teaching (DTT) is one of the most widely used procedures to teach a variety of skills to individuals with ASD. Specific teaching practices within DTT vary and many recommendations exist for practitioners to ensure these gains reflect genuine skill development and are not the result of faulty stimulus control. The field of applied behavior analysis (ABA) relies on empirical evidence and practices have evolved with growing research. However, some recommendations regarding DTT have not been empirically tested for effectiveness or efficiency. This study used an adaptive alternating treatment design to evaluate the effects and efficacy of counterbalancing stimuli in-view of the learner and out-of-view of the learner when teaching receptive labels for three children diagnosed with ASD. The results indicated that both methods were effective though there were differences in efficiency.


The author would like to thank Kimberly Schulze for her patience, support, and insight.



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