The Repository @ St. Cloud State

Open Access Knowledge and Scholarship

Date of Award


Culminating Project Type


Degree Name

Cultural Resources Management Archaeology: M.S.




College of Liberal Arts

First Advisor

Rob Mann

Second Advisor

Mark Muñiz

Third Advisor

Darby Stapp

Creative Commons License

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 4.0 License.

Keywords and Subject Headings

CCC-ID, Umatilla, Cultural Resource Management



In order for the Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation’s (CTUIR) Tribal Historic Preservation Office (THPO) and Cultural Resources Protection Program (CRPP) to preserve, protect and perpetuate cultural resources for current and future generations of the Weyíiletpu (Cayuse), Imatalamłáma (Umatilla), and Walúulapam (Walla Walla) peoples, we need to be aware of the resources and the values they contain. One set of resources that the CTUIR knows little about is the work undertaken by the Civilian Conservation Corps-Indian Division (CCC-ID) at the Umatilla Agency including the types of projects, the location of such projects, why the projects were selected, the tribal members involved, the effects of such improvements on the tribal people residing on the Umatilla Indian Reservation, and what remains today of such resources.


Through archival research, assessment of oral history data, and archaeological survey, I provide locational data and context for any extant CCC-ID built environment and archaeological resources remaining.


The CCC-ID projects were centered in three areas: the July Celebration Grounds in Mission near the Umatilla Agency, Old Chief Joseph Gravesite and Cemetery, and the restored Johnson Lands. Archaeological survey of the Johnson Lands identified both archaeological and built environment resources still present on the landscape.


The THPO and CRPP has a greater understanding of the location of the CCC-ID resources and the importance of these places. Proposed projects in these locations will need to assess the potential direct, indirect and cumulative impacts on the values that make these places significant to the tribal community.


As Indian identity is rooted in traditional places across the landscape, efforts need to be made by current tribal members to reconnect with these locations and teach future generations of their importance. To limit further impacts to these locales, adjacent lands could be purchased. The CTUIR Department of Justice should look into re-establishing legal access to the northern portion of the Johnson Creek Truck Trail. Additional survey work should occur to better define those resources documented, such as the entire boundary fenceline including gates, fence jacks and historic refuse left during construction. Additional survey work should also be conducted along Blue Kettle Ridge to verify if the northern portion of the Cold Springs Truck Trail is mapped in the correct location. Lastly, portions of the Johnson Lands not previously surveyed should be surveyed.



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