The Repository @ St. Cloud State

Open Access Knowledge and Scholarship

Date of Award


Culminating Project Type


Degree Name

Cultural Resources Management Archaeology: M.S.




College of Liberal Arts

First Advisor

Mark Muñiz

Second Advisor

Robb Mann

Third Advisor

Debra Gold

Creative Commons License

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 4.0 License.

Keywords and Subject Headings

use-wear, use wear, macroscopic, expedient tool


This thesis project was utilized to examine the use of expedient tools, or stone tools made with little to no production effort, through macroscopic means to determine if specific activities were being enacted on a site. CRDA8-Site5 (36GR0418) functioned as an Early, Middle, and Late Woodland lithic reduction and tool production locus, based on the recovery of 2,442 precontact artifacts, including lithic debitage, chipped stone tools, and polished, ground, and pecked stone tools (PGP). The lack of artifact rich features with datable charcoal and additional artifact types, such as faunal remains, left little to give insight into further site purpose. By allowing more analysis to occur on expedient tools, the ability to more acutely define site activities presents itself.

The project took place in two parts. Part one included the replication of the use-wear produced on expedient tools from various materials within the parameters of controlled production. Part two of the project was comprised of using the comparative collection to macroscopically identify use-wear patterns on the expedient tool collection from all three phases of the CRDA8- Site5 (36GR0418) collection.



To view the content in your browser, please download Adobe Reader or, alternately,
you may Download the file to your hard drive.

NOTE: The latest versions of Adobe Reader do not support viewing PDF files within Firefox on Mac OS and if you are using a modern (Intel) Mac, there is no official plugin for viewing PDF files within the browser window.