The Repository @ St. Cloud State

Open Access Knowledge and Scholarship

Date of Award


Culminating Project Type


Degree Name

Cultural Resources Management Archaeology: M.S.




College of Liberal Arts

First Advisor

Rob Mann

Second Advisor

Debra Gold

Third Advisor

Emily Schultz

Creative Commons License

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 4.0 License.

Keywords and Subject Headings

fort snelling, archaeology, bottles, alcohol


The goal of this research was to explore the theme of alcohol as a social status marker within the realm of the American military frontier in the early to mid-1800s. The study was done as a comparison between the drinking habits of the officers and the enlisted men throughout the occupancy of the selected fort during the 1800s. While glass bottles and alcohol are both extensively studied subjects in anthropology and archaeology, there is a gap in the shape of alcohol’s use as a social status marker within the American military. This thesis hopes to start to fill in that gap.

The fort studied was Fort Snelling, a 19th century era military installation in St. Paul, Minnesota. The fort had been previously excavated and its collection curated, but very little research has been done on its contents.

The chosen artifacts for this study were the remains of alcohol bottles, including bottle styles that had multiple uses so long as alcohol were among them. The study revealed variations in choice of drink between officers and enlisted men.


To my parents for all their incredible support

KRGaubatz_thesis_Appendix_B.pdf (1554 kB)
Appendix B



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