The Repository @ St. Cloud State

Open Access Knowledge and Scholarship

Date of Award


Culminating Project Type

Starred Paper

Degree Name

Curriculum and Instruction: M.S.


Teacher Development


School of Education

First Advisor

Ramon Serrano

Second Advisor

Hsueh-I Lo

Third Advisor

Agusto Rojas

Creative Commons License

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 4.0 License.

Keywords and Subject Headings

literacy, adolescent literacy, secondary, Frayer model, graphic organizers, professional learning communities


A review of the research regarding the lack of literacy instruction at the secondary level by content area teachers. This review includes a short summary of the current best research-based literacy strategies. It reveals that graphic organizers, like the Frayer model, and projects like READI appear to be the easiest forms to add literacy instruction to improve literacy in content areas. It also recommends the creation of Professional Learning Communities (PLCs) as one of the best forms of support by administration.


Thank you to my husband, John, for his constant encouragement in completing this degree. In addition, I want to thank Dona Yetter, the North Branch and West Metro Coordinator, for assisting me in traversing and finishing all the bureaucratic intricacies needed to complete the program and receive my diploma. But I especially want to thank my advisor, Dr. Ramon Serrano, for assisting me in focusing my ideas, clarifying my writing, and his encouragement to make this project my own.



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