The Repository @ St. Cloud State

Open Access Knowledge and Scholarship

Date of Award


Culminating Project Type


Degree Name

Educational Administration and Leadership, K-12: Ed.D.


Educational Administration and Higher Education


School of Education

First Advisor

John Eller

Second Advisor

Frances Kayona

Third Advisor

Plamen Miltenoff

Fourth Advisor

David Lund

Creative Commons License

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 4.0 License.

Keywords and Subject Headings

American Indian Education, Culturally Responsive Schooling


The qualitative study intended to identify local districts actions to incorporate Culturally Responsive Schooling into the curriculum to foster identity development among American Indian students. The study interviewed 19 educators and focused specifically on the ways in which components of the Cultural Compatibility Theory are guiding education for American Indian students. The study also intended to understand the factors present that support or inhibit the inclusion of Culturally Responsive Schooling practices to support students.

Non-American Indian educators cited the presence of cultural content in their classrooms when it was identified as specific to the class content. American Indian educators cited regularly working with students to learn and engage with the culture. American Indian educators identified using every student interaction as an opportunity to convey the importance of cultural learning to students. Differences evident between American Indian and non-American Indian educators when identifying factors supporting or inhibiting the incorporation of Culturally responsive Schooling. The presence of collaboration was perceived differently between American Indian and non-American Indian educators with non-American Indian educators citing more presence of collaboration than American Indian educators. Similar results were present when asked about district support or inhibition of collaboration and school structure with non-American Indian educators identifying more support than inhibition. All educators identified benefits of Culturally Responsive Schooling practices. Recognized challenges included educators’ knowledge of the culture, time available, and an understanding of how to incorporate culture in an effective and sensitive manner.



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