The Repository @ St. Cloud State

Open Access Knowledge and Scholarship

Date of Award


Culminating Project Type

Starred Paper



Degree Name

Information Assurance: M.S.


Information Assurance and Information Systems


Herberger School of Business

First Advisor

Lynn Collen

Second Advisor

Jieyu Wang

Third Advisor

Hazem Farra

Creative Commons License

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 4.0 License.

Keywords and Subject Headings

Non-Fungible Token, Blockchain, Security and Privacy Issues, Threats, Vulnerabilities, Cryptocurrencies


Non-Fungible Tokens (NFTs) have exploded into the technological and blockchain worlds with millions of dollars’ worth of cryptocurrencies such as Ethereum and Bitcoin among others, being traded for with these NFTs by individuals. NFTs are utilized by most buyers and sellers to show authenticity and sole ownership of a rare piece of work which could be in the form of an art, a video, a game, an image, a collectible, or anything the individual deems to be of great value and of interest for other individuals to pay for and own. NFTs however are not immune to the security and privacy issues that are already affiliated with the blockchain. This research work therefore examines the existing vulnerabilities in the blockchain then specifically investigates vulnerabilities with NFTs. Not much of research effort has been put into this area but the ones that have been conducted centered on generic security issues related to Non-Fungible Tokens. Taxonomies are developed in this paper to classify the security threats and attacks as identified by investigating the vulnerabilities of NFTs. This work will be of great assistance to investors and developers who look to enter into the NFT market, as they will be provided with some adequate knowledge for them to be aware of the security issues related to the booming market of NFTs.