The Repository @ St. Cloud State

Open Access Knowledge and Scholarship

Date of Award


Culminating Project Type


Degree Name

Industrial/Organizational Psychology: M.S.




College of Liberal Arts

First Advisor

John Kulas

Second Advisor

Jody Illies

Third Advisor

Christopher Peterson

Creative Commons License

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 4.0 License.

Keywords and Subject Headings

Discretionary Effort, Self-Efficacy, Organizational Friendship, Leader-Member Exchange, Musical Self-Efficacy, Chorus


Data from 55 members of a Midwest Barbershop chorus were collected and analyzed as part of this study. The goal of this study was to examine the relationship between discretionary effort and three predictors: quality of relationship with leader, quality of relationship with coworkers, and self-efficacy for learning music. A better understanding of the relationship between these variables has the potential to focus group time on activities likely to be related to discretionary effort exerted. The results indicated a positive correlation between discretionary effort and self-efficacy for learning music, as well as mixed support for the positive relationship between discretionary effort and organizational friendship. Results include limitations and recommendations for future studies.



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