The Repository @ St. Cloud State

Open Access Knowledge and Scholarship

Date of Award


Culminating Project Type


Degree Name

Special Education: M.S.


Special Education


School of Education

First Advisor

Jerry J. Wellik

Second Advisor

Floyd W. Ayers

Third Advisor

Russell H. Schmidt

Creative Commons License

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 4.0 License.

Keywords and Subject Headings

gifted, mathematically advanced, leisure activities


A survey designed to gather information about extracurricular and leisure activities was distributed to 332 tenth, eleventh, and twelfth grade students between March 30, 1997 and June 1, 1997. Two hundred and ten surveys from the original sample were analyzed by grouping the various activities into eleven activity indices. Each index was then compared statistically using a series of one-way ANOVAs, and Tukey's box plots. Students were also divided into six groups based on their mathematical accomplishments, and their gender.

Statistically significant differences were found for six of the eleven Activity Indices. The Academic Index, Math Index, and Science and Technology Index show that there are relationships (p < 0.001) between the level of math achievement and participation in math, academic, and science and technology oriented activities, respectively. Students with the higher levels of mathematical achievement participate in these activities more often than students with lower levels of mathematical achievement.

The Gaming Index demonstrates that both gender and mathematical achievement are related to participation in gaming activities such as role playing games, logic, board, and card games. Students with high levels of mathematical accomplishment were found to participate more frequently than other students. Males participate in gaming activities more frequently than females.

The Music Index indicates that there are differences (p < 0.01) between males and females, and among groups with different levels of mathematical accomplishment. Unlike the results for the other indices, the females are the most frequent participants in music related activities. Females with the highest mathematical accomplishments are also the most active in music related activities.

The Social Index shows that there are differences (p < 0.001) between males and females. The Social Index does not seem to be related to achievement in mathematics.

The results show that students demonstrating a high level of mathematical accomplishment are more likely to participate in certain leisure activities. The data suggest that, except for social activities, gender is not nearly as important in the selection of leisure activities as the level of mathematical accomplishment.


With sincere thanks to my husband John for his support and help throughout this entire project.



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