The Repository @ St. Cloud State

Open Access Knowledge and Scholarship

Date of Award


Culminating Project Type

Starred Paper

Degree Name

Special Education: M.S.


Special Education


School of Education

First Advisor

Dr. Jennifer Christensen

Second Advisor

Dr. James Johnson

Third Advisor

Dr. Bradley Kaffar

Creative Commons License

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 4.0 License.

Keywords and Subject Headings

trauma, resilience, learning, adverse childhood experiences, ACE


In 1998, a groundbreaking medical research study was published that created widespread interest in what researchers were calling adverse childhood experiences (ACEs). Felitti et al.’s (1998) research highlighted the prevalence of adverse incidents and the correlation with future health morbidity. The study established that more than 50% of adults in the study experienced at least one traumatic event during childhood, allowing the research to become a powerful tool to identify and intervene with children. It became apparent that the effects of traumatic events in the lives of children had a huge impact on biological, physiological, and psychological development. An evolution had begun and the impact on learning and resilience was becoming an important consideration for the educational community.



To view the content in your browser, please download Adobe Reader or, alternately,
you may Download the file to your hard drive.

NOTE: The latest versions of Adobe Reader do not support viewing PDF files within Firefox on Mac OS and if you are using a modern (Intel) Mac, there is no official plugin for viewing PDF files within the browser window.