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Open Access Knowledge and Scholarship

Culminating Project Title

The Effects of Prereferral Intervention

Date of Award


Culminating Project Type

Starred Paper

Degree Name

Special Education: M.S.


Special Education


School of Education

First Advisor

Floyd W. Ayers

Second Advisor

Eva M. Gadberry

Third Advisor

Russell H. Schmidt

Creative Commons License

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 4.0 License.

Keywords and Subject Headings

persons with learning disabilities, post secondary success


[...]The number of students with learning and behavioral problems in the mainstream classroom and the urgency of readdressing failure in the regular classroom is critical. Regular educators are concerned that many students who do not meet the eligibility requirements to receive special services are experiencing problems in the classroom. The number of students referred for assessments and possible placement in special education programs has increased dramatically.

Although special education has shouldered the primary responsibility for students with special needs, educational service delivery needs to be a shared responsibility of regular and special education teachers. Alternatives to traditional practices need to be explored, evaluated, and utilized.

Prereferral activities and intervention strategies are one, if not the most representative, trends in the increased role of regular education in serving students with learning and behavior problems. Prereferral intervention is designed to call early attention to student learning and behavior needs, to document the problems, conduct on-site adjustments in the mainstream classroom, and monitor student progress.

This review will focus on the need, the purpose, and the use of prereferral interventions. The Teacher Assistance Team (TAD and Consultation, two prereferral intervention models which may assist teachers with instructional strategies and management techniques to help students meet educational success, will be examined. In this review, prereferral intervention is defined as a service delivery designed to assist the classroom teacher in providing needed classroom support, assistance, and instructional strategies to instruct and manage students with learning or behavior problems, thereby reducing the number of students referred for formal assessment and possible placement in special programs.

OCLC Number




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