The Repository @ St. Cloud State

Open Access Knowledge and Scholarship

Date of Award


Culminating Project Type

Starred Paper

Degree Name

Special Education: M.S.


Special Education


School of Education

First Advisor

Kyounghee Seo

Second Advisor

Bradley Kaffar

Third Advisor

Michele Traub

Creative Commons License

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 4.0 License.

Keywords and Subject Headings

functional behavior assessment, function-based intervention, challenging behavior, inclusive classroom, elementary school


Both at-risk students and students with disabilities have been jeopardized with their continued placements in inclusive classrooms because of the ongoing challenging behaviors. The evidence-based practice to deal with challenging behaviors involves the implementation of functional behavior assessments (FBAs) and function-based interventions (FBIs) in school settings. The types of interventions in this starred paper are categorized as antecedent-based, consequence-based, and multi-component interventions. All twelve studies were conducted in elementary schools in the United States except for two studies (i.e., South Korea and Iceland). Participants ranged in the grade levels from kindergarten to sixth grade. The findings of these studies supported that the implementation of FBIs derived from information of FBAs resulted in decreasing challenging behaviors or increasing appropriate behaviors for at-risk students and students with disabilities in inclusive classrooms of elementary schools.



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