This paper proposes practical and implementable Lakota language programs for use in primary school classrooms on the Pine Ridge Reservation. By applying the Predictioneer’s Model of the Game Theory to the most viable educational models for the reservation, the Lakota Full Immersion and Lakota/English Dual Immersion Models are found to be the classroom options that would be the most agreeable for all interested parties. The implementation of either of these models would enhance student scholastic performance, provide greater post-school opportunities, as well as provide incentive for the Lakota language within the community. The paper also discusses the current orthographic issues that are integral to the teaching of Lakota on the reservation.

Creative Commons License

Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 4.0 License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 4.0 License.

Faculty Supervisor

Professor Ettien Koffi

Author Bio

Jon Cotner is a graduate student in the MA TESL program at St. Cloud State University. He earned a BA degree in Philosophy and has since had careers with IBM, Lawson Software, and as an independent contractor. His areas of interest include interlanguage dynamics and second language writing.



To view the content in your browser, please download Adobe Reader or, alternately,
you may Download the file to your hard drive.

NOTE: The latest versions of Adobe Reader do not support viewing PDF files within Firefox on Mac OS and if you are using a modern (Intel) Mac, there is no official plugin for viewing PDF files within the browser window.