The Repository @ St. Cloud State

Open Access Knowledge and Scholarship

Date of Award


Culminating Project Type


Degree Name

English: Teaching English as a Second Language: M.A.




College of Liberal Arts

First Advisor

Choonkyong Kim

Second Advisor

Edward Sadrai

Third Advisor

Michael Dando

Creative Commons License

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 4.0 License.

Keywords and Subject Headings

English learners, second language acquisition, bilingualism, long-term English learners


Long-term English learners (LTELs) are typically described as English learners (ELs) whom have been in a limited English learning program for five or more years and who have yet to be reclassified into the general population of students. For many of these students, their conversational English appears nativelike. However, their academic achievement is generally found to be lower than that of their monolingual peers. While many emergent bilinguals designated the LTEL label struggle academically, language, race, and class contribute to the systemic barriers placed in front of them. With consideration to negative labels and characteristics associated with LTELs, the purpose of this study is to investigate the linguistic choices that contribute the language repertoires of LTEL-labeled students. In doing so, a group of Hispanic/Latinx students at a suburban high school were surveyed within four domains and multiple variances in order to more fully give details to how, when, and why these learners use the languages in their arsenal.



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