The Gambling Functional Assessment-Revised (GFA-R) was designed to measure whether the respondent’s gambling is maintained by positive reinforcement or escape. However, it has only been administered in samples dominated by nonproblem gamblers. One hundred five adult participants who scored three or more on the South Oaks Gambling Screen (SOGS) completed the GFA-R and the Problem Gambling Severity Index (PGSI). Confirmatory factor analyses showed that a 15-item GFA-R demonstrated a sound factor structure. The internal consistency of the GFA-R subscales was good to excellent for both probable problem and disordered gamblers. Participants scored significantly higher on gambling for positive reinforcement than as an escape. However, probable disordered gamblers endorsed gambling as an escape significantly more than probable problem gamblers. Gambling as an escape, but not for positive reinforcement, was also a significant predictor of participants’ PGSI scores independent of their SOGS scores. The results suggest that the GFA-R may be a valid and useful measure for both researchers and practitioners. The results also highlight the prominent role gambling as an escape plays in problem and disordered gambling.



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