The Repository @ St. Cloud State

Open Access Knowledge and Scholarship

Date of Award


Culminating Project Type


Degree Name

Biological Sciences - Cell and Molecular: M.S.




College of Science and Engineering

First Advisor

Heiko L. Schoenfuss

Second Advisor

Timothy Schuh

Third Advisor

Cassidy Dobson

Creative Commons License

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 4.0 License.

Keywords and Subject Headings

Daphnia, aquatic, toxicology, stormwater, urban, minnows


ü Best Management Practices storm water ponds (BMPs) are ways of controlling and filtering storm water and storm sewer effluent. Urbanized areas are increasingly turning to the use of these BMPs as a means to mitigate the affect of storm water runoff on aquatic environments. However, the effectiveness of BMPs is not well understood and there have been few studies that look at the biological efficacy of these filtration systems. This study looked at the effectiveness of three BMPs in the cities of St. Paul and Minneapolis, MN. The BMPs being studied used iron filings blended with sand as a filtration substrate. Water was collected at winter snow melt, spring rain event, and summer rain event. Collected water was used to expose Daphnia magna and Pimephales promelas. D. magna exposure endpoints were survival and reproduction. Daphnia were exposed for 16-day periods to establish adult survival and neonate production. P. promelas exposure endpoints were larval c-start performance, growth, and feeding assays. Larval P. promelas were exposed to stormwater for 21-days before assessing their endpoints. Water chemistry indicates that there is an improvement in water quality from the Inflow to Outflow in each BMP. However, there were few significant differences in larval minnow or Daphnia performance results between the Inflow and Outflow of the BMPs for all three storm water sampling events. The only area that showed marked improvement was larval performance over time, with minnows exposed to water collected later in the year performing better on predator escape assays than minnows exposed to winter snow melt. The design of the BMP filtration system may need to be improved or more filtration may be needed to achieve improvements in biological outcomes.


For my parents,

Thank you for the love, guidance, and support.

For my siblings,

I will never forget the stories we made and adventures we had.

For my advisor,

Dr. Heiko Schoenfuss,

You have given me confidence in my academic pursuits,

And provided me an opportunity to expand my knowledge,

Thank you for the mentorship and support these past two years.



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