The Repository @ St. Cloud State

Open Access Knowledge and Scholarship

Date of Award


Culminating Project Type




Degree Name

Biological Sciences - Cell and Molecular: M.S.




College of Science and Engineering

First Advisor

Timothy Schuh

Second Advisor

Nathan Bruender

Third Advisor

Christopher Kvaal

Creative Commons License

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 4.0 License.

Keywords and Subject Headings

planaria, eyespot formation, GAPDH inhibitors, mitosis, apoptosis


Planaria are flatworms known for their remarkable ability to regenerate. Glycolytic activity has been shown to increase during planarian regeneration (Osuma et al., 2017) and regeneration requires both an increase in mitotic activity and an increase in apoptotic activity to successfully regrow missing structures (Pellettieri et al., 2010; Wenemoser & Reddien, 2010). The objectives of this study are to determine if metabolic inhibitors affect the time needed to regenerate eyespots after head amputation as a measurement of regeneration and if there are any correlations between average numbers of mitotic and apoptotic cells in regenerating planaria in the presence or absence of metabolic inhibitors. Planaria (D. dorotocephala and D. tigrina) were exposed to non-lethal doses of metabolic inhibitors after amputation between the head and the pharynx to determine if metabolic inhibitors affect eyespot regeneration times. Mucus removal, fixation, and bleaching were used to prepare planaria for immunolabeling procedures. Mitotic cells were labeled to determine if metabolic inhibitors affect average numbers of mitotic cells in regenerating planaria. Immunolabelling procedures were used in an attempt to visualize apoptotic cells in planaria. Results from the exposure experiments suggest that the earlier planaria are exposed to metabolic inhibitors after amputation, the longer it takes to regrow eyespots. By comparing the average number of mitotic cells planaria in the presence or absence of metabolic inhibitors, it was determined that delays in eyespot formation are not associated with changes in the average number of mitotic cells. Further studies should be conducted to test for significant differences between apoptotic cells in inhibitor-treated and untreated planaria.


I would like to thank my advisor, Dr. Schuh, and committee members, Drs. Bruender and Kvaal, for their assistance with this project. I would also like to thank Barb Kjellberg for her assistance with logistics, Drs. Lamb and Olson for use of their fluorescent microscope attachments, and Dr. Sundheim for statistical consulting.



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