The Repository @ St. Cloud State

Open Access Knowledge and Scholarship

Date of Award


Culminating Project Type




Degree Name

Biological Sciences - Cell and Molecular: M.S.




College of Science and Engineering

First Advisor

Dr. Gazal Oladele

Second Advisor

Dr. Le Gengyun

Third Advisor

Dr. Bruce Jacobson

Creative Commons License

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 4.0 License.

Keywords and Subject Headings

Hunteria Umbellata, Polycystic Ovary Syndrome, PCOS, Insuline Resistance, Diabetes


Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) affects 20% of women globally, characterized by inflammation, systemic issues, and hormonal imbalances, notably hyperandrogenism and insulin resistance, which impact fertility. Hunteria umbellata Extract (HUE) contains compounds like flavonoids, tannins, and terpenoids, known for their antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, and hypoglycemic effects (Ajiboye et al., 2017). Considering HUE's diverse phytochemical profile, we explored its potential for alleviating PCOS symptoms. Using testosterone propionate (TP) and a high-fat diet, we induced and maintained PCOS features in a rat model for 56 days, replicating PCOS pathophysiology. TP-induced insulin and leptin resistance contributed to obesity and PCOS hallmarks, effectively mimicking the condition.

HUE demonstrated dose-dependent effects on weight gain, reducing it at lower doses but showing complex interactions at higher doses. Ovarian histology showed PCOS-induced irregularities, while HUE-treated groups exhibited normal follicular development, possibly due to flavonoids. Uterine histology indicated endometrial hyperplasia in PCOS-induced rats, but HUE treatment increased uterine gland numbers, suggesting hormonal modulation. Kidney weight increase in PCOS-induced groups may be attributed to androgen administration, with potential benefits from HUE, especially at moderate doses. Gene analysis hinted at potential hormonal modulation by HUE, though statistical significance was not reached. Flavonoids may lower estrogen levels, possibly through AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) pathways (Chen et al., 2017).

In summary, HUE displayed various effects on weight gain, potential modulation of ovarian morphology, and impacts on uterine histology and renal fibrosis in a PCOS rat model. These findings underscore the need for further investigation into HUE's active constituents, mechanisms, and clinical applications for PCOS.


With profound gratitude, I extend my heartfelt appreciation to my heavenly Father, my Lord Jesus Christ, and the Holy Spirit. I am deeply thankful for His divine guidance and strength that has illuminated my academic journey. My sincere gratitude goes to my thesis supervisor Dr. Oladele Gazal for his unwavering instructions and words of knowledge. I also express my gratitude to the esteemed members of my thesis committee, Dr. Gengyun Le and Dr. Bruce Jacobson, for their invaluable contributions to the realization of this thesis and my overall academic success. A special place of thanks is reserved for Dr. Felicia Leammukda for her insightful words and unwavering support throughout my time in graduate school along with her remarkable mentorship to both graduate and undergraduate students, is something to be lauded.

I am immensely grateful for the unwavering support and encouragement from my parents, Dr. Arthur Abaneme and Dr. Esther Abaneme, and my siblings—Gold, David, and Ephraim Abaneme. Your support has been my pillar of strength, guiding me through challenges. I also extend my deepest appreciation to my extended family, especially Dr. Ogedi Omenyinma and his family, for their steadfast support during my graduate studies. Your love and encouragement have been instrumental in my perseverance.

I want to express my gratitude to Nina Ineza, my lab and graduate partner at the Endocrinology and Reproduction Lab, for her friendship, constructive criticism, and camaraderie. Special thanks to Brian Lorenz, the Vivarium manager, and his dedicated staff for their assistance during the research. I also appreciate the help of undergraduate students Samantha Corrigan, Adeyemo Adesola, Leslie Alvillar, and Katarina Hansen in my lab work. Each of you has played a crucial role in my academic journey, and I am sincerely thankful for your contributions. May you be abundantly blessed. Thank you!



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