The Repository @ St. Cloud State

Open Access Knowledge and Scholarship

Date of Award


Culminating Project Type


Degree Name

Applied Behavior Analysis: M.S.


Community Psychology, Counseling and Family Therapy


School of Health and Human Services

First Advisor

Benjamin Witts

Second Advisor

Kimberly Schulze

Creative Commons License

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 4.0 License.


This paper begins with an overview of the history of behavioral treatments used to treat pediatric sleep disturbances. Next, the paper analyzes the results of a systematic literature conducted to identify trends in pediatric sleep disturbance research. Only peer-reviewed, experimental studies with participants ages 2-12, designed to treat sleep refusal using extinction, graduated extinction, or bedtime routine procedures were included. A total of 23 studies were included in the analysis; 12 of the 23 studies were extinction, 7 were graduated extinction, and 4 were bedtime routine. Data related to authors, year published, number of participants, participant ages, participant diagnoses, independent variable, dependent variable, experimental design, follow up measures, treatment measures, and treatment outcome were extracted. Trends related to the inclusion of functional analysis methodology, treatment acceptability measures, and long-term follow up measures are discussed. Trends related to demographic information and prevalence are also presented. The results highlight the need for experimentally sound studies that use single case methodology, include replications, collect objective measures, and include follow up measures at least one year post-treatment.



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