The Repository @ St. Cloud State

Open Access Knowledge and Scholarship

Date of Award


Culminating Project Type


Degree Name

Applied Behavior Analysis: M.S.


Community Psychology, Counseling and Family Therapy


School of Health and Human Services

First Advisor

Benjamin Witts

Second Advisor

Kimberly Schulze

Third Advisor

John Hoover

Creative Commons License

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 4.0 License.


Observant practitioners of behavior analysis graph data formatively, or at least once per session, because graphs improve analysis and dissemination of data (Bushell & Baer, 1994; Cooper, Heron, & Heward, 2007; Johnston & Pennypacker, 2009). In service settings, practitioners commonly use Microsoft Excel to graph. Although numerous field-specific tutorials explain how to create new graphs with Microsoft Excel (e.g., Carr & Burkholder, 1998), tutorials rarely encourage formative graphing with procedures that would make updating graphs easy and efficient. Templates with programming code could address this limitation. With Microsoft Excel 2013 and a single-subject design, I compared graphing with a template to graphing with a typical textual task analysis. Four graduate students created and updated three types of graphs more accurately and efficiently with the template than with the task analysis. Moreover, the four students reported that graphing was easier with the template than with the task analysis. I conclude by discussing how these improvements might improve clinical practice when multiplied by days, weeks, and years.



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