The Repository @ St. Cloud State

Open Access Knowledge and Scholarship

Date of Award


Culminating Project Type




Degree Name

Rehabilitation Counseling: M.S.


Community Psychology, Counseling and Family Therapy


School of Health and Human Services

First Advisor

Dr. Amy Knopf

Second Advisor

Dr. Susan Dowds

Third Advisor

Dr. Khadija Ali

Creative Commons License

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 4.0 License.

Keywords and Subject Headings

mindfulness, meditation, telehealth, addiction, substance use, substance use disorders, craving, substance use craving, outpatient treatment


The current study aims to examine the effectiveness of mindfulness meditation via telehealth as part of routine care in an outpatient substance use treatment program in Jakarta, Indonesia. The randomized controlled study design was performed to find the difference between the mean score of the Mindfulness Attention and Awareness Scale (MAAS) and the Aggregated Drug Craving Scale (ADCS) level before and after the intervention for the treatment group (n=15) and the control group (n=15). The two 2-way ANOVA (groups x times) was conducted to find the difference in ADCS and MAAS scores between the treatment group who received the Treatment as Usual (TAU) plus the additional four weekly telehealth mindfulness meditation sessions and the control group who received the TAU only. This study found that there was no significant difference in the average score of the MAAS (F (1, 56) = .147, p = .702, ηp2 = .003) and the ADCS (F (1, 56) = .358, p = .552, ηp2 = .006) for any interaction of groups, both treatment and control groups. There was also no significant difference in the average score of the MAAS score (F (1, 56) = .077, p = .783, ηp2 = .001) and the ADCS score (F (1, 56) = 1.88, p = .175, ηp2 = .033) for any type of intervention times, both at pretest and posttest. Hence, this study concluded that the TAU with added telehealth mindfulness meditation is not more effective than the TAU-only in reducing substance use craving.


I would like to thank my thesis committee chair, Dr. Amy H. Knopf. Thank you for your advice, encouragement, and feedback throughout this process. I am forever grateful to work with you. Thank you for always being an excellent reinforcer for completing my thesis.

Thank you to Dr. Susan Dowds and Dr. Khadija Ali for their time reviewing this thesis and providing valuable feedback. There is no doubt your additions strengthened the quality of my work.

Thank you to everyone who has taken the time to be part of my mindfulness meditation project. I hope this study can provide valuable resources for substance use disorder treatment.

I am most thankful to everyone who has supported me, especially my mom, dad, and mentor; I am overwhelmed with gratitude.

Finally, I dedicate this thesis to my daughters, Carissa and Carinna. This journey would never be completed without your sacrifice. I do believe someday, you both will understand and appreciate this journey. This journey is ours, thank you!



To view the content in your browser, please download Adobe Reader or, alternately,
you may Download the file to your hard drive.

NOTE: The latest versions of Adobe Reader do not support viewing PDF files within Firefox on Mac OS and if you are using a modern (Intel) Mac, there is no official plugin for viewing PDF files within the browser window.