The Repository @ St. Cloud State

Open Access Knowledge and Scholarship

Date of Award


Culminating Project Type


Degree Name

Cultural Resources Management Archaeology: M.S.




College of Liberal Arts

First Advisor

Mark Muñiz

Second Advisor

Rob Mann

Third Advisor

James Renn

Creative Commons License

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 4.0 License.

Keywords and Subject Headings

Optically Stimulated Luminescence, Soil Geomorphology, Lithic Analysis, Ceramic Analysis


The Huron-Manistee National Forests heritage staff conducted a Phase II archaeological evaluation of the Late Woodland site 20MT158, located on the Manistee River, Manistee County, Michigan. 20MT158 consists of a core and biface manufacturing site situated on the east edge of a strath-terrace overlooking the river. The purpose of this evaluation was to determine overall site integrity, determine site function, ascertain a specific cultural tradition or phase beyond Late Woodland, and make a National Register of Historic Places eligibility determination. A historical context was developed in order to address the regional issue of whether or not Canadian-Carolinian Biotic transition zone Late Woodland subsistence-settlement system strategies could be identified. Results from studying terrace geomorphology and lithic analysis revealed that the occupants used technological organization strategies during their seasonal migration round. 20MT158 acted as a staging area were mobile tool kits were refurbished before undertaking the next segment of the seasonal journey.



I would first like to thank my thesis advisor Professor Mark Muñiz of the College of Liberal Arts at St. Cloud State University. Professor Muñiz was always available whenever I ran into a trouble spot or had a question about my research or writing. He consistently allowed this paper to be my own work, but steered me in the right direction whenever I needed it.I would also like to thank the Huron Manistee National Forests for allowing me to undertake this project, utilize their Chittenden facility, and access their unpublished cultural resource management materials.

I would still be conducting fieldwork if not for the wonderful Passport-In-Time volunteers and Huron Manistee National Forests personnel who eagerly gave their time and energy. I would like to thank Bob and Patti Dunning, Nicholas Lower, Eleanor Oskerep, Hannah Hirsch, Tom Wallace, Stacy Hammond, Joe Maile, Ramona Venegas, Nan Lowe, David VanDerworp, Charles Conrad, Dale Hall, Wade Fullerton, Christine Bronk, Florin Krepela, and Barb Heidel. Special thanks go out to Trevor Hobbs, Forest Williams and Jon Meeks for their assistance with the soils and mapping.

I would also like to acknowledge Professor Rob Mann of the College of Liberal Arts at St. Cloud State University and Archaeologist James Renn at Huron Manistee National Forests as the second readers of this thesis, and I am gratefully indebted to their very valuable insights.

Finally, I must express my very profound gratitude to my parents and friends for providing me with unfailing support and continuous encouragement. Thank you.



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