The Repository @ St. Cloud State

Open Access Knowledge and Scholarship

Date of Award


Culminating Project Type


Degree Name

Cultural Resources Management Archaeology: M.S.




College of Liberal Arts

First Advisor

Mark Muñiz

Second Advisor

Rob Mann

Third Advisor

John Doershuk

Creative Commons License

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 4.0 License.

Keywords and Subject Headings

Archaeology, Archaic, Lithic Analysis, Iowa, Great Plains


The Lungren Site (13ML224) is a Middle Archaic campsite located in Mills County, Iowa. The site was excavated in the 1960s during the Smithsonian River Basin Surveys, and represents one of a relatively small number of well-preserved Archaic period sites known in western Iowa. Lithic artifacts from the Lungren assemblage were reanalyzed as part of this thesis in order to derive better understanding of technological strategy and land-use by the mid-Holocene bison hunters who left these tools behind. Analysis of lithic debitage and raw material illustrates heavy utilization of locally acquired raw material for tool making. This includes both expedient and formal items that comprised a specialized tool kit well suited for a population of mobile bison hunters. While the Archaic period in many areas of the Great Plains remains poorly understood, data from this thesis will be useful in developing a better understanding of technological strategy and lifeways of peoples on the Eastern Plains during this time period.



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