Culminating Project Title
Date of Award
Culminating Project Type
Cultural Resources Management Archaeology: M.S.
College of Liberal Arts
Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 4.0 License.
Keywords and Subject Headings
Northwest Plains Early Archaic Lithic Geoarchaeology
The goals of this research are to come to a greater understanding of site formation processes at the Hudson-Meng site, to gain a greater understanding of Early to Middle Archaic lifeways through the material record at Hudson-Meng, and to quantify the potential for error between observers in a lab setting, using the Hudson-Meng assemblage as a vehicle for discussion. Situated in Sioux County, Nebraska, the Hudson-Meng site (25SX115) has been a site of contention for decades. Hudson-Meng has been evaluated multiple times since its original excavation in 1968, with the primary research focus being on a large Paleoindian bone bed. However, an oft overlooked Component of Hudson-Meng is an Early to Middle Archaic phase, which has been noted by each of the major undertakings at the site. More recent excavations at the site, conducted by Dr. Mark Muñiz from St. Cloud State University from 2006 to 2014, have uncovered further evidence of Early to Middle Archaic occupation of the site. It is this assemblage of artifacts which is the specific focus of this research. This find is of considerable interest, as there is a relative absence of sites at this age in the Northwest Plains. By synthesizing the geoarchaeological context of the site and region with the material record from this Component, a greater understanding of Northwest Plains Archaic groups may be realized. Additionally, assessment of measurement errors between observers will provide more robust methodological frameworks by which artifacts can be analyzed. Based on the data, three distinct cultural Components are observed; these Components represent short term occupation of the site, as evidenced by the scarcity of artifacts and lack of exotic materials. Four of the six previously observed soil anomalies correspond to two of the cultural Components observed. These four are interpreted as cultural, with the remaining two features being interpreted as naturally occurring. Lastly, measurement errors among observers become much greater as the metric in question becomes more subjective; awareness of this should serve to encourage a greater degree of specificity in measurement constraint. This Component of Hudson-Meng is also notable as being the first documented appearance of thermally altered rock within an Early Archaic setting.
Shelton, Jeffrey, "On the Early to Middle Archaic Occupation of Hudson-Meng: A Geoarchaeological and Lithic Study" (2019). Culminating Projects in Cultural Resource Management. 29.