The Repository @ St. Cloud State

Open Access Knowledge and Scholarship

Date of Award


Culminating Project Type





Degree Name

Cultural Resources Management Archaeology: M.S.




College of Liberal Arts

First Advisor

Mark Muñiz

Second Advisor

Rob Mann

Third Advisor

Rochelle Lurie

Fourth Advisor

Jeff Torguson

Creative Commons License

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 4.0 License.

Keywords and Subject Headings

Macktown, Rockton, Illinois, Cultural History


For the past 60 years, Macktown (11WO256) has been the focus of many independent archaeological projects. As a result, the precolonial history of this site has never been holistically examined. In this thesis, precolonial data was gathered from every associated report and compiled to be visually and geospatially analyzed as well as interpreted. Using tools in ArcPro v.2.9, such as the Optimized-Hot Spot analysis tools in conjunction with the Empirical Bayesian Kriging tool, an examination was completed and the Early Archaic (10,000-8,000 BP) to Upper Mississippian (1,000 - 450 BP) occupations were refined. From this research, it has been realized that precolonial Macktown consisted of intermittent occupations throughout various established archaeological horizons and phases. 11WO256 has served as resource procurement stations and bivouacs throughout the Archaic period, to intense temporary base camps and substantial freshwater mollusk exploitation during the Middle and Late Woodland period, to ephemeral occupations during the Mississippian and Upper Mississippian periods. Site function varied, consisting of seasonal freshwater shell extraction, food processing, and stone tool manufacturing. Macktown finds itself as an interim between major cultural movements throughout the western Great Lakes and Upper Mississippian River Valley regions


First and foremost, I must thank my wife, Kelly. Throughout this entire process, she has been in the trenches, calling out tables, doing it twice, reviewing my work, and patiently adapting as we went through this process together. Also, I thank my sons Alexander and Jason, who would wait quietly (kind of) for Dad to get done.

I would like to acknowledge and thank Rochelle Lurie, Sara Pfannkuche, and Jay Martinez, who have taken me under their archaeological wings and have honored me with their expertise, advice, knowledge, and friendship.

Also, thank you to Mark Muñiz, Rob Mann, and Jeff Torguson for taking a chance on me and being willing to entertain my contrarian mindset in lecture and fielding my concerns and questions with kindness.

Finally, I would like to acknowledge the Illinois Department of Natural Resources, Illinois State Historic Preservation Office, Illinois Inventory of Archaeological Sites, Midwest Archaeological Research Services, Macktown Living History, the Winnebago County Forest Preserve District, volunteers, and students who have made Macktown and archaeology a big part in the second chapter of my life.



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