Date of Award


Culminating Project Type

Starred Paper

Degree Name

Curriculum and Instruction: M.S.


Teacher Development


School of Education

First Advisor

Martin Lo

Second Advisor

Ramon Serrano

Third Advisor

Mary Beth Noll

Creative Commons License

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 4.0 License.

Keywords and Subject Headings

motivation, mastery-oriented, intrinsic, extrinsic


The ideal student is one who demonstrates mastery-oriented characteristics; most notable of which is an inherent focus on learning and improvement (Roebken, 2007). In the area of music, the ideal student also focuses on performance and must demonstrate competence relative to others (Donald, 2012). Therefore, the mastery-oriented performing student has the ability to learn, gauge his or her performance in relation to others, and adapt to improve the next performance.

At every level of music there are motivational factors that can promote or detract from mastery-oriented performance. Despite the vast array of music ensembles and styles, those who achieve high levels of performing possess positive motivational attributes. “Indeed, when people are inspired, they feel the drive to initiate, to continue, or to complete tasks” (Criss, 2011, p. 62).

Music, like other performance-based activities such as athletics, requires motivated students to achieve mastery-oriented learning, which correlates to higher levels of performing. Students must be motivated to: (a) take on the task, (b) select a performance goal, (c) strategize methods to attain the goal which may include requesting assistance,

(d) continuously self-assess the sounds produced when practicing/performing, and (e) persevere through the anxieties that may accompany the official performance(s) (Jones, 2009). These components can be in any particular order and vary in importance per student, but they are the consistent factors that must be considered in music education programs. Programs that do not promote positive motivation strategies risk lack of student engagement (Oare, 2011).



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