The Repository @ St. Cloud State

Open Access Knowledge and Scholarship

Date of Award


Culminating Project Type


Degree Name

Exercise Science: M.S.




School of Health and Human Services

First Advisor

David Bacharach

Second Advisor

Glen Street

Third Advisor

King Banaian

Creative Commons License

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 4.0 License.

Keywords and Subject Headings

Exercise, Happiness, Function, Age, Training Impulse, Frequency


The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between happiness and three independent variables: training impulse (TRIMP), age and frequency of exercise. Measurement of each subject's happiness level was ascertained by the General Social Survey (GSS). This GSS happiness questionnaire is scored using a 1-10 rating scale. In this study TRIMP was defined as the product of the duration of training performed in one session and the perceived exertion during that exercise session. The respondents' exercise sessions ranged from no exercise to regularly scheduled exercise sessions ranging from 10-60+ minutes. Most respondents engaging in regular exercise sessions participated either in jogging, aerobics, cycling, walking and/or basketball. The Borg 15-point scale was used to determine the perceived exertion of each subject during exercise which ranged from 6 ( extremely light) to 18 ( extremely hard). Subject age was recorded. Frequency of exercise was recorded as number of days per week they exercised. A multiple regression analysis using TRIMP, age, and frequency of exercise to predict happiness was significant [F(3,I03)= 20.42, P < 1.8x ff1 , r = .61]. When each variable was assessed for its contribution to the model, only TRIMP was significant [F(1,103) = 6.28, P < .18x E-09, P < .05, r=.59]. Even independently, age and frequency of exercise did not provide a significant contribution to predicting happiness once TRIMP was included in the model nor were they significant predictors of happiness independently [Age (F(1,103)= 1.92, P < .06, r = .26) and Exercise frequency (F(1,103) =.30, P < .76, r = .54)]. Also there does not seem to be multicollinearity among the three independent variables. Correlations between the three independent variables (TRIMP, age, frequency of exercise) were all low (r's 400 they are shown to be the most happy. The original hypothesis of this study that people who exercise while having larger training impulses are happier was supported. Additionally, increasing TRIMP scores suggest that the product of exercise intensity and duration is more closely related to perceived happiness than age and/or exercise frequency. Finding combinations of exercise and duration to achieve a TRIMP score > 400 would seem prudent for enhancing peoples' perceived happiness.


I want to greatly thank Dr. B. for his kindness, support, patience and encouragement over the past 7 years as I worked on this research. My gratitude also extends to the fine professors in the Human Performance lab at St. Cloud State; Dr. Seifert and Dr. Street for their support and guidance through my course work and my research. I also want to thank my classmates, Brian, Josh, Karen and especially Tony Duerr who greatly helped me to understand the excel program that I was inexperienced with.

I want to express my gratitude and thanks to my committee members- Dr. Bacharach, Dr. King Banaian, and Dr. Glen Street for helping me through the trouble spots of my research and placing a high demand for accurate and quality work.

Thank you to Robert Bierscheid Director, Saint Paul Parks and Recreation and Brad Meyer, Public Information Officer for Saint Paul Parks and Recreation for greatly helping me with my data collection. Thanks to three of the greatest bosses I am blessed to have worked for: Dave Ksiazek, Denise Kispert and Stephen Dinger who allowed me to juggle my schedule at work and accommodated me at every turn during my years of study.

My greatest thanks goes out to my wonderful wife Tamara and our three wonderful children Eli, Dan and Leah who encouraged supported and showed great patience with me. God's Blessing's to you.

Finally, all my Praise, Glory and Honor goes to my Savior and Lord, Yeshua Ha'Mashiach, Jesus Christ the true Messiah. As the Psalmist says He indeed created us "fearfully and wonderfully."

Included in

Kinesiology Commons



To view the content in your browser, please download Adobe Reader or, alternately,
you may Download the file to your hard drive.

NOTE: The latest versions of Adobe Reader do not support viewing PDF files within Firefox on Mac OS and if you are using a modern (Intel) Mac, there is no official plugin for viewing PDF files within the browser window.