The Repository @ St. Cloud State

Open Access Knowledge and Scholarship

Date of Award


Culminating Project Type


Degree Name

Special Studies: M.S.




School of Health and Human Services

First Advisor

Laura Finch

Second Advisor

Susan Parault-Dowds

Third Advisor

Vincent Miles

Creative Commons License

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 4.0 License.

Keywords and Subject Headings

mirror mirros, men, college, self-efficacy, body-image


The purpose of this study was to examine the differences in body self-consciousness and exercise self-efficacy between college males exercising in the presence or absence of mirrors in a general gym atmosphere. It was hypothesized that the presence of mirrors would increase body self-consciousness and increase exercise self-efficacy. The treatment group (n = 15) exercised in an environment where the mirrors had been covered up with dark paper and the control group (n=15) exercised in an environment where the mirrors were present. Body self-consciousness was assessed using the Objectified Body Consciousness Scale OBCS which is comprised of three subscales: body shame, body surveillance and appearance control beliefs. Exercise self-efficacy was assessed using the Self Presentational Efficacy Scale SPES which is comprised of three subscales: efficacy expectancy, outcome expectancy and outcome value. No significant differences were found between treatment and controls groups in body self-consciousness and exercise self-efficacy. Correlations identified that males in a mirror free environment experience an increase in both body shame and body surveillance from Pre-exercise (r=.664) to Post-exercise (r=.845). This suggests that exercise experienced males are engaging in self-reference through some other means than their reflection.



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