The Repository @ St. Cloud State

Open Access Knowledge and Scholarship

Date of Award


Culminating Project Type

Starred Paper

Degree Name

Special Education: M.S.


Special Education


School of Education

First Advisor

Marc Markell

Second Advisor

Ramon Serrano

Creative Commons License

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 4.0 License.

Keywords and Subject Headings

stress, emotional, behavioral, self-regulation, students, mindfulness


The purpose of this paper was to identify and implement the most effective interventions strategies for self-regulating stress in adolescent students with emotional and behavioral disorders (EBD). This review focused on three issues. First, the psychological models of self-regulation were examined. This included the internalization and externalization symptoms of stress and their relation to students with EBD. Second, the techniques for developing self- regulation were compared and contrasted. Social and emotional learning (SEL) and its relation to the development of self-regulation techniques was the focus along with mindfulness techniques. Finally, different classroom-based interventions for improving self-regulation skills of students who have emotional and behavioral disorders were analyzed. The three classroom-based interventions reviewed focused on the integration of SEL and the theory of mindfulness. The three intervention programs included yoga, Learning to BREATHE (L2B), and Transformative Life Skills (TLS). All three of these intervention programs showed promising results. However, a number of factors may affect the efficacy of these programs in EBD classrooms. First, research with the focus on students with EBD was limited. Second, many of the studies reviewed were based on small sample sizes. Third, school-based variables may also affect the efficacy of the interventions. Future research focusing on developing self-regulation skills for stress is needed for students with EBD.


I would like to thank the following people for their help and guidance in finalizing this paper: Marc Markell, James Michael Pickle, and Ramon Serrano.



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