In most languages, including English, there are four main grammatical moods: the declarative (also known as the indicative mood), the imperative mood, the conditional mood, and the subjunctive mood. The first three moods occur frequently in speech and in writing. However, the subjunctive is hardly used in English, even though one cannot avoid it when one studies French, Spanish, and other Romance languages. In this paper, we describe the subjunctive, its functions, and its place an ESL curriculum. We examine textbooks and offer suggestions for how, when, and why to include the subjunctive in lesson plans.
Professor Ettien Koffi
Bastien, Rebecca and Vinz, Sarah
"If I Were an ESL Student, Would I Need to Learn the Subjunctive? An Analysis of Teaching the Subjunctive Mood,"
Linguistic Portfolios: Vol. 3
, Article 4.
Available at: https://repository.stcloudstate.edu/stcloud_ling/vol3/iss1/4