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In most languages, including English, there are four main grammatical moods: the declarative (also known as the indicative mood), the imperative mood, the conditional mood, and the subjunctive mood. The first three moods occur frequently in speech and in writing. However, the subjunctive is hardly used in English, even though one cannot avoid it when one studies French, Spanish, and other Romance languages. In this paper, we describe the subjunctive, its functions, and its place an ESL curriculum. We examine textbooks and offer suggestions for how, when, and why to include the subjunctive in lesson plans.

Faculty Supervisor

Professor Ettien Koffi

Author Bio

Rebecca Bastien received her MA TESL/Applied Linguistics Program degree from SCSU.

Sarah Vinz received her MA/TESOL in May 2012. Prior to coming to SCSU she ran an English department at a high school in Thailand and spent a number of years working for the United Nations in Europe and Africa. Vinz also holds a Master of International Affairs degree (Columbia University)



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