The Repository @ St. Cloud State

Open Access Knowledge and Scholarship

Date of Award


Culminating Project Type


Degree Name

English: Teaching English as a Second Language: M.A.




College of Liberal Arts

First Advisor

Choonkyong Kim

Second Advisor

James Robinson

Creative Commons License

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial 4.0 License

Keywords and Subject Headings

Emails, Correction, Recast, Intake, Uptake, Noticing


In this experimental study, students in a first year, second semester, mandatory University English class, participated in an existing Email exchange with their NS teacher, to determine if targeted errors would decrease in succeeding Email exchanges. I had used an Email exchange for 6 semesters prior to this study and wanted to establish if the students benefited from the method used to correct errors, namely recasts. Although not possible to draw general conclusions or make any generalities due to the sample size (n = 9), it was possible to contextualize perceptions and reflections of this study. Devoid of substantial evidence to draw any generalities or definitive conclusions, this study does kindle interest in student developmental readiness and the use of recasts as an error correction method.


There are many people that helped me complete this paper. First, I would like to thank my committee members: Professor Kim, my thesis advisor, for her continuous support and help throughout the process, I would not have completed this paper in such a timely manner without her assistance; Professor Robinson, Department Head and one of the people responsible in initiating and supporting the duel program between SCSU and WSU, thank you Jim; and Professor Seo, the external reader, for driving to the campus for my final defense on a day she was not teaching and for her insightful thoughts and suggestions, they were much appreciated.

I also must acknowledge my friends and colleagues: Thomas and Larry for assisting with inter-rater reliability calculations; Larry, Lou, Adam and Zeke for proof reading my working copy; and HJ and Chanmi for translating Korean text to English and vice versa; and a big thank you to HJ for assisting with the graphs.

I would also like to thank Ms Anderson for her assistance in formatting and the final editing of this paper. Thank you to all!



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