The Repository @ St. Cloud State

Open Access Knowledge and Scholarship

Date of Award


Culminating Project Type




Degree Name

Educational Administration and Leadership, K-12: Ed.D.


Educational Administration and Higher Education


School of Education

First Advisor

Frances Kayona

Second Advisor

John Eller

Third Advisor

David Lund

Fourth Advisor

Amy Christensen

Creative Commons License

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 4.0 License.

Keywords and Subject Headings

Supervision, Inspection, Instructional Supervision, Clinical Supervision, Professional Development



The purpose of this study was to examine the instructional supervision process in select English-speaking primary schools in Limbe 1 sub-division found in the Southwest Region of Cameroon. Three research questions were answered in this study: 1.What do Cameroon primary school head teachers and teachers report as the priority and frequency of administering instructional supervision practices? 2. To what extent do head teachers and teachers agree on the effectiveness (culture, communication, interaction and relationship) of instructional supervision? 3. What are the advantages and challenges in the instructional supervision process as reported by head teachers and teachers?

A non-experimental design was used to collect data and incorporated both closed-ended and open-ended survey items. A total of 46 head teachers (46%) and 146 teachers (49%) in select government, mission, and private schools completed the surveys, with a return rate of 48%. A research assistant on site was used to collect data from participants. Data was analyzed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version for windows, measures of central tendency (frequencies, percentages, mean and Standard Deviation), and coding strategies.

The results of this study revealed that participants were more females (head teachers; 69.6% and teachers; 84.0%) than males (head teachers; 16.0% and teachers; 30.4%). Over half of participants (head teacher; 80.4% and teachers; 80.7%) have Teacher Grade 1 Certificate as their highest level of education. Majority (41.3%) of the participants currently work in government schools and have more than ten years of experience as teacher or head teacher.

The findings revealed that schools in the study area currently practice instructional supervision, with a high level of priority and frequency of administering instructional supervision practices. The results on the effectiveness of instructional supervision by teachers and head teachers indicated their agreement on culture, communication, interaction and relationship in instructional supervision.

Information from the study has revealed that Cameroonian teachers reflect many of the same concerns, challenges, expectations, and needs as all teachers. Both teachers and head teachers suggested that organizational culture, relationships, and the structural organization of schools are aspects that must be taken into consideration when planning for instructional supervision. They also reported that training and resources are necessary for the professional preparation of teachers and the instructional supervision process. The lack of sufficient resources for training and professional improvement continued to pose on-going challenges for teachers and head teachers in this study.



I would like to thank my dissertation committee members; Dr. Frances Kayona, Dr. John Eller, Dr. David Lund, and Dr. Amy Christensen for their advice, feedback, and in ensuring this international study gets to this quality. Special thanks to my advisor; Dr. Frances Kayona whose wisdom, experience, endless contributions and assistance made this dissertation journey successful.

I would also like to appreciate Mrs. Marie Agwe; a head teacher in Cameroon, for accepting the role of a research assistant on site. Her dedication, sacrifice, and efforts helped overcome some of the challenges in data collection and communication with the government officials and the schools selected for the study.

I would like to thank the inspector of basic education for Limbe 1 Sub-division, Mr. Mbua Martin, for accepting this study to be conducted in Limbe 1 Inspectorate. I would like to thank Mr. Akume Ernest of the Inspectorate of Limbe 1 for his support and willingness to help when needed.

I would like to acknowledge my mom; Mrs. Rebecca Nganji, siblings and family; Mr. and Mrs. Edwin Nganji, Dr. and Mrs. Julius Nganji, Juliet and Philippe Ntamark, Mr. and Mrs. Yves Nganji, Rev. and Mrs. Gilles Nganji, Mr. Louis Nganji and Mr. Tashing Nsangong. Thank you for your prayers and encouragements throughout this journey. To my beloved husband Louis Chia Ngoh, thank you for everything despite the distance apart. Thank you to all my friends and in-laws for the love and care you always showed me.

Finally, I would like to thank my classmates in Cohort 12 at Saint Cloud State University for their support through my coursework and dissertation journey.



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