The Repository @ St. Cloud State

Open Access Knowledge and Scholarship

Date of Award


Culminating Project Type


Degree Name

Educational Administration and Leadership, K-12: Ed.D.


Educational Administration and Higher Education


School of Education

First Advisor

Roger Worner

Second Advisor

Kay Worner

Third Advisor

Janine Dahms-Walker

Fourth Advisor

Plamen Miltenoff

Creative Commons License

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 4.0 License.

Keywords and Subject Headings

struggling readers preschool through second grade


The purpose of the study was focused on examining perceptions of a sample of primary level rural Minnesota teachers of the common reading deficiencies displayed by struggling preschool through second grade readers, barriers experienced in delivering reading instruction to struggling readers, and strategies determined to be most effective in addressing reading deficiencies displayed by struggling readers. Furthermore, the study examined the types of staff development Minnesota teachers and their principals identified as most valuable in addressing reading deficiencies among preschool through second grade students.

The study employed a mixed methodology, which included the use of a closed-ended response survey and interviews. According to Morse (2005), “mixed method research consists of designs that are either primarily qualitative or quantitative and that incorporate strategies of the other method (either qualitative or quantitative) into the same research project” (p. 583).

The main conclusions from this study supports existing research. Research supports the necessity to identify struggling readers early in their literacy development. Flynn, Zheng, and Swanson (2012) stated, “it is widely known that early intervention is the key component to remediating reading difficulties, as well as, decreasing the risk of future reading acquisition problems” (p. 21).

The study of Teachers’ Perceptions of Barriers, Strategies, and Professional Development in Addressing Reading Deficiencies Displayed by Struggling Pre-Kindergarten-Second Grade Readers supports the need for early identification of literacy deficiencies displayed by struggling readers. It also supports the need for identifying perceived barriers impacting the delivery of quality instruction, teaching strategies to address reading deficiencies of struggling readers, and available professional development or related reading strategies to improve literacy instruction.



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