The Repository @ St. Cloud State

Open Access Knowledge and Scholarship

Date of Award


Culminating Project Type


Degree Name

Educational Administration and Leadership, K-12: Ed.D.


Educational Administration and Higher Education


School of Education

First Advisor

Frances Kayona

Second Advisor

David Lund

Third Advisor

James Johnson

Fourth Advisor

John Madden

Creative Commons License

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 4.0 License.

Keywords and Subject Headings

Adult Basic Education, adult ESL, ELL, English Language Learning, Blended Learning, Educational Technology


The rationale for the study stems from the need to explore blended learning in Adult Basic Education ESL programs as it develops as a new practice (Rosen & Stewart, 2015). Even though blended learning has been used in some K-12 schools for much longer than Adult Basic Education programs, it is not enough for leadership to make program decisions based on what is happening in typical K-12 schools. English as a Second Language (ESL) programs within Adult Basic Education programs have their own needs and “students today are electronically connected, and they expect their learning to be connected as well” (Dunn, 2011, p.60). Thus, the distinctiveness of Adult Basic Education ESL programs and the onset of blended learning within those programs, was the inspiration for this study.

The problem of the study is to examine teacher perceptions of the type of use, reasons for use, and barriers to the use of blended learning in Adult Basic Education ESL programs. This study was designed to gain a deeper understanding of blended learning in Adult Basic Education ESL programs. Data was gathered from 11 Adult Basic Education ESL teachers in a state in the Midwest of the United States of America, using in-depth interviews during the summer of 2018.

The overarching understanding that emerged from this study is that the Adult Basic Education ESL educational setting is unique in ways that influence how blended learning should be used in Adult Basic Education ESL programs.


I am extremely appreciative to those who have helped me during the the Educational Administration and Leadership program and in writing my dissertation. Throughout the process, my family and friends have eased my stress and supported me in many ways that I will always be grateful for. My instructors, classmates, and dissertation committee made going through this program and writing the dissertation highly enjoyable and fulfilling.

My dissertation chair, Dr. Frances Kayona, guided me and built my confidence while maintaining high expectations for my study. I appreciate the many hours we spent discussing my writing. I felt energized and inspired after each of our meetings. Thank you Dr. Kayona.

The other members of my dissertation committee, Dr. David Lund, Dr. James Johnson, and Dr. John Madden, provided valuable feedback while planning, carrying out the study, and writing the dissertation. Thank you!

A special thank you to the study participants. Without you, this study would not have been possible. Thank you for your time and openness with sharing your unique experiences in Adult Basic Education ESL programs.



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