The Repository @ St. Cloud State

Open Access Knowledge and Scholarship

Date of Award


Culminating Project Type


Degree Name

English: Teaching English as a Second Language: M.A.




College of Liberal Arts

First Advisor

Choonkyong Kim

Second Advisor

James Robinson

Third Advisor

Mark Love

Creative Commons License

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 4.0 License.

Keywords and Subject Headings

gamification, meta-analysis, time on task


Gamification is a fairly new concept that involves using game elements in non-game contexts. It has been shown that gamification can increase motivation and learning, but there have been conflicting results, with some studies reporting opposite findings. Because of these motivational results and benefits that have been reported, many researchers have attempted to use gamification in educational settings. Again, these studies have shown mixed results. However, as a large number of studies have shown benefits from using gamification in educational settings, it is important to know exactly what aspects of gamification are beneficial so that it can be properly used in second language education. The present study is a meta analysis of gamification of education research that set forth to determine what aspects of gamification are important in educational settings, and how this information can be used to successfully use gamification in second language education. Overall, it was found that gamification typically had a positive effect. Additionally, several moderator variables were of importance, including the length of instruction, inclusion of competitive aspects, and usage of time on task elements.