The Repository @ St. Cloud State

Open Access Knowledge and Scholarship

Date of Award


Culminating Project Type


Degree Name

English: Teaching English as a Second Language: M.A.




College of Liberal Arts

First Advisor

Choonkyong Kim

Second Advisor

Isolde Mueller

Third Advisor

Tim Fountaine

Creative Commons License

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 4.0 License.


This paper explores second language (L2) learners’ relationship with conventional expressions – a subset of pragmalinguistic competence – by investigating the effects that language proficiency, length of stay, and intensity of interaction have on both learner recognition and use of such expressions. This study replicates Bardovi-Harlig and Bastos’ 2011 study with slight modifications, and consists of three tasks: an aural recognition task, oral production task, and a questionnaire. These tasks were completed by 50 L2 learners and 23 native speakers of American English. The aural recognition task included 60 conventional and modified expressions, and the oral production task consisted of 32 scenarios meant to elicit conventional expressions. The questionnaire measured various factors contributing to the intensity of L2 environmental interaction, and has been modified from the original study to include Internet and social media use. Three one-way ANOVA tests demonstrated a significant effect for L2 proficiency on production of conventional expressions, and a marginally significant effect on conventional expression recognition. Intensity of interaction demonstrated a significant influence only on the production of conventional expressions in initiating scenarios. Length of stay did not demonstrate significant effects on either recognition or production of conventional expressions.