The Repository @ St. Cloud State

Open Access Knowledge and Scholarship

Date of Award


Culminating Project Type


Degree Name

English: Teaching English as a Second Language: M.A.




College of Liberal Arts

First Advisor

Michael Schwartz

Second Advisor

Isolde Mueller

Third Advisor

Mark Love

Creative Commons License

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 4.0 License.

Keywords and Subject Headings

Hmong, bilingual paraprofessional, EL, ELL, mainstream


The study focused on the perceptions of Hmong bilingual paraprofessionals regarding their roles and responsibilities in mainstream classrooms. 10 participants from three school districts in Wisconsin were interviewed to establish what they do to give support to the English Language (EL) professional and what support they give to English Language Learners (ELLs) to help propel them to be independent of ELL services. Findings from the study indicate that Hmong bilingual paraprofessionals tend to have various roles and responsibilities not limited to the classroom with mainstream teachers. This study also addresses the concerns of the bilingual paraprofessionals and what could be done to help improve the practices of staff to better support the ELLs.