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Open Access Knowledge and Scholarship

Date of Award


Culminating Project Type

Starred Paper

Degree Name

English: Teaching English as a Second Language: M.A.




College of Liberal Arts

Creative Commons License

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 4.0 License.

Keywords and Subject Headings

adult education, marxist education, liberatory education, culture circles, literacy, discourse


Tutors have a unique opportunity to help English-as-a Second Language (ESL) students develp their communicative competence. Mary Ann Christison and Karl Krahnke found that ESL students rated social contact as the largest contributor to language development outside the classroom, but also the area most lacking.* Tutoring may be one way to provide social contact, while at the same time providing help with language, cultural, and academic difficulties ESL students may be facing. Potential ESL tutors may be uncertain, however, about the role they are supposed to play in the tutoring situation.

*Christison, Mary Ann, and Karl J. Krahnke. "Student Perceptions of Academic Language Study." TESOL Quarterly 20.1 (1986):61-79.

OCLC Number