The Repository @ St. Cloud State

Open Access Knowledge and Scholarship

Date of Award


Culminating Project Type


Degree Name

Geography - Geographic Information Science: M.S.


Geography and Planning


School of Public Affairs

First Advisor

Jeffrey S. Torguson

Second Advisor

Benjamin F. Richason III

Third Advisor

Jean L. Hoff

Creative Commons License

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 4.0 License.

Keywords and Subject Headings

Hazardous waste, ArcGIS Hydrology Spatial Analyst, St. Regis Paper Company, Superfund, Groundwater


This body of research reviewed the first 36 years groundwater remediation at the St. Regis Paper Company Superfund Site. Thus far the remediation has not been effective at protecting human health and the environment. Available geologic cross sections of St. Regis Paper Company Superfund Site show the two gravel aquifers, but these investigations are non-conclusive about the constancy the clay confining layer. If the confining layer is discontinuous it could be affecting the groundwater flow as well as pollution spread between the aquifers. The existing 2016 groundwater model of the St. Regis Paper Company Superfund Site showed how the pump and treat extraction wells are capturing part but not all of the groundwater pollution. In 1985 when the St. Regis Site Superfund clean-up effort began, the pump and treat extraction wells near were planned where the disposal lagoons and landfills were located during the time of operation. A 2015 soil studies of the St. Regis Paper Company Superfund Site showed that the most polluted soil was not just in the former disposal lagoons and landfill areas. ESRI’s ArcGIS Hydrology Spatial Analyst Toolset was utilized to show the major stream drainage influents at the St. Regis Paper Company Superfund Site. This research found that the areas with most polluted soil unfortunately are located where water will gather and drain to due to the topography of the St. Regis Site. the non-remediated soil continues to contribute to the groundwater pollution as precipitation leads to the pollution in the soil to leach into the groundwater. These early assumptions about the locations of the contaminated areas have limited the site remediation ever since. This study recommends the EPA and the Potentially Responsible Parties engaged in remediation should consider other methods of groundwater and soil remediation at the St. Regis Site. Technology and remedial capabilities have improved greatly since 1984. There are many more options for remediation, including some that are much more affordable and effective than the pump and treat method.