Culminating Project Title
Date of Award
Culminating Project Type
Higher Education Administration: Ed.D.
Educational Administration and Higher Education
School of Education
Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 4.0 License.
Keywords and Subject Headings
AP Program, educational debt, race, class, sex, credits
This quantitative study examined how race, class, and sex predict the number of college credits awarded through Advanced Placement (AP) exams at a small, private, liberal arts and professional studies university. This study builds on the existing literature which focuses on large, national-level data sets and the AP Program. The existing institutional data points of race, Pell grant eligibility status, first-generation status, and sex were analyzed. The results suggest that Black Indigenous People of Color (BIPOC) students are awarded significantly fewer credits than white students, and first-generation students are awarded significantly fewer credits than continuing-generation students. There was no significant difference between the number of credits awarded to male or female students. This study fills a gap in the literature as it focuses on the inequitable outcome of credits awarded based on AP exam scores along the lines of race, class, and sex. The results of this study help to inform more equitable institutional policies and practices, as they relate to awarding credit for engagement in and completion of AP coursework.
Jacobson-Schulte, Marah, "Credits as Currency: Increasing Educational Wealth Through Institutional Policy Reform; How Race, Class, and Sex Predict College Credits Awarded Based on AP Exam Scores" (2021). Culminating Projects in Higher Education Administration. 48.