The Repository @ St. Cloud State

Open Access Knowledge and Scholarship

Date of Award


Culminating Project Type


Degree Name

Industrial/Organizational Psychology: M.S.




College of Liberal Arts

First Advisor

Daren Protolipac

Second Advisor

Jody Illies

Third Advisor

James Tan

Creative Commons License

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 4.0 License.

Keywords and Subject Headings

creativity, novelty, usefulness, divergent thinking, virtual teams, face-to-face teams, task structure, standardization, formalization


Creativity researchers have proposed that collaboration is necessary for creativity (Amabile & Khaire, 2008), and note that freedom of process is necessary to increase idea generation (Amabile, 1983). Although some research has shown freedom produces greater creativity compared to constraints (Choi et al., 2009; Gilson, Mathieu, Shalley & Ruddy, 2005), a handful of studies have shown that having constraints may be beneficial for creativity teams (Abric, 1971; Dennis, Valacich, Connolly, & Wynee, 1996; Dennis & Valacish, 1999). Constraints may be particularly beneficial for virtual teams to increase their communication and coordination efforts, as these processes differ from face-to-face teams. The present study evaluated the relationship between virtual teams and face-to-face teams and creativity, and whether different degrees of task structure moderate creative output. Results from the study indicated all relationships were non-significant. Limitations and implications from the results are discussed.


I would like to thank all the individuals who helped me complete my thesis. First, to my committee members, Daren Protolipac, Jody Illies, and James Tan, for giving me countless ideas, expertise, and feedback. The time you spent helping me on my thesis gave me invaluable lessons on research, writing, and statistical analysis. Second, to the classmates and psychology professors that provided materials, time, and/or support - Garrett Kadrie, Megan Muras, Spencer Rathbun, Thomas Ticheur, Joseph Park, Taryn Carnes, Josh Stainer, Joseph Melcher, and Leslie Valdes - you all played an integral role in helping me complete my thesis. Third, to my mentors, Catherine Hoepner and John Kulas, for continually giving me support, guidance, and an abundant amount of knowledge on school, industry, and life since the first day of my graduate studies – thank you for inspiring me to continually do my best. Finally, I would like to thank my main support system – my family. Lisa, Phil, Elizabeth, and Zachary – you have taught me the power of resilience and hard work. To Benjamin Green – since Day 1 you have always been available to talk to and laugh with; you played an extremely important role in my graduate studies. I appreciate you all and cannot thank everyone enough.



To view the content in your browser, please download Adobe Reader or, alternately,
you may Download the file to your hard drive.

NOTE: The latest versions of Adobe Reader do not support viewing PDF files within Firefox on Mac OS and if you are using a modern (Intel) Mac, there is no official plugin for viewing PDF files within the browser window.