Culminating Project Title
Date of Award
Culminating Project Type
Industrial/Organizational Psychology: M.S.
College of Liberal Arts
Dr. Daren Protolipac
Dr. Marcy Young Illies
Dr. James Tan
Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 4.0 License.
Keywords and Subject Headings
Organization, Leadership, Women, Stereotypes, Transformational, Afghanistan
This research aimed to investigate the relationship between various leadership styles; transformational, transactional, Laissez Faire, task-oriented, and/or relationship-oriented styles, and stereotypical perception of women’s leadership, by surveying male and female employees in non-governmental organizations in Kabul, Afghanistan. Differences in leadership scores based on participants’ gender and stereotypical beliefs helped identify how gender-based stereotypes can affect Afghan employees' perception of women’s leadership styles. This study found that there is no statistically significant difference between men and women in their transformational leadership dimensions. However, women had higher mean scores on both relationship orientation and task orientation, opposite to the hypothesis that men would be higher on task-oriented leadership behavior than women. Furthermore, it was found that gender cannot predict employees’ gender-role attributes, while gender-role role attributes can predict employees’ leadership styles. Employees higher on agentic attribute were higher on transformational and transactional leadership than employees with higher communal attribute. Employees with higher communal attributes were higher on task and relational leadership than those higher on agentic attributes. Finally, this study found that regardless of gender, employees with agentic attributes rate a female leader as more transactional and task-oriented, while employees’ communal attributes cannot predict a female leader’s leadership styles.
Hassani, Sakina, "A Quantitative Study of Gender-Stereotypical Perception of Women’s Leadership Styles Among Employees in Non-Governmental Organizations in Kabul, Afghanistan" (2021). Culminating Projects in Psychology. 15.