The Repository @ St. Cloud State

Open Access Knowledge and Scholarship

Date of Award


Culminating Project Type

Starred Paper



Degree Name

Special Education: M.S.


Special Education


School of Education

First Advisor

Dr. Bradley Kaffar

Creative Commons License

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 4.0 License.

Keywords and Subject Headings

Mathematics, Concrete-represenatational-abstract, schema-based instruction, fact fluency, elementary


Abstract is not required for a Starred Paper.


Many elementary schools utilize a response to intervention (RTI) model that includes three tiers of instruction. With the RTI model it is essential that evidence-based practices are being used across all tiers of instruction. With instruction being informed from a general education point-of-view and a special education point-of-view it is important to determine what models of instruction work for mathematics. This article aims to determine evidence-based strategies for fact fluency instruction, word problem instruction, and the concrete-representational-abstract (CRA) sequence across all three tiers of instruction. The researcher determines evidence-based practices by conducting a literature review for the CRA sequence, fact fluency instruction, and word problem instruction. Additionally, the researcher provides implications for evidence-based practices identified for all tiers of instruction.



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