The Repository @ St. Cloud State

Open Access Knowledge and Scholarship

Date of Award


Culminating Project Type

Starred Paper

Degree Name

Special Education: M.S.


Special Education


School of Education

First Advisor

Bradley Kaffar

Second Advisor

Jerry Wellik

Third Advisor

Gary Whitford-Holey

Creative Commons License

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 4.0 License.

Keywords and Subject Headings

Restorative, Restorative Justice, Restorative Practices, Restorative Discipline


For decades, schools and juvenile detention systems in the United States and abroad have used punitive disciplinary practices such as detention, suspension, expulsion, and jail sentences to address adolescent misbehavior. These practices are considered to be retributive in that they serve as repayment to society in the case of detention and to act as “desertion” of society in the cases of suspension or incarceration” (Flanders, 2014, p. 328). Zero tolerance practices, touted by both educational and juvenile justice systems, have escalated the use of such practices. However, little evidence exists to support that these retributive practices have reduced the number of disruptions, fights, and other violent misbehaviors within schools (Lewis, 2009).

The need for a different approach to discipline within schools and juvenile justice systems has led many schools and juvenile justice programs to consider alternatives such as Restorative Justice. Also referred to as restorative practices, they are designed not only to change behavior, but also to “restore the environment and relationships damaged by the behavior” (Beale, 2003, p. 418). Some practitioners contend this approach results in lower rates of misbehavior and recidivism (Bradshaw & Roseborough, 2005; Lewis, 2009). The purpose of this paper was to demonstrate the efficacy of restorative justice and other restorative practices on reducing adolescent misbehavior.


Thank you for the help of my committee--Dr. Bradley Kaffar, Dr. Gary Whitford-Holey, and Dr. Jerry Wellik. Also thanks to Mary Beth Noll for your guidance.



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