The Repository @ St. Cloud State

Open Access Knowledge and Scholarship

Date of Award


Culminating Project Type

Starred Paper

Degree Name

Special Education: M.S.


Special Education


School of Education

First Advisor

Kyounghee Seo

Second Advisor

Jennifer Christensen

Third Advisor

James Johnson

Creative Commons License

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 4.0 License.

Keywords and Subject Headings

trauma, professional development, externalizing behavior, trauma sensitive schools


This starred paper is a review of literature that examines qualitative and quantitative studies conducted to explain the relationship between childhood adversity, childhood development, and externalizing behaviors. Additionally, this literature review further examines the impact of childhood adversity and trauma on student learning, teacher efficacy, and the need for trauma-sensitive school systems.



To view the content in your browser, please download Adobe Reader or, alternately,
you may Download the file to your hard drive.

NOTE: The latest versions of Adobe Reader do not support viewing PDF files within Firefox on Mac OS and if you are using a modern (Intel) Mac, there is no official plugin for viewing PDF files within the browser window.